CWT – a CW Contest

I’ve been learning Morse Code through CW Academy. One of the things my instructor has encouraged is getting on the weekly contest, CWT, which runs three weekly, one-hour sessions each Wednesday: 

  • 1300Z (6am PST) – mostly 20M, some 40M
  • 1900Z (noon PST)
  • 0300Z (8pm PST) – mostly 40M, some 20M early, 80M later 
20M Comes Alive

During the two minutes before it starts and through the official end time, the band comes alive in a way you don’t normally see during daylight hours.

A typical exchange happens very quickly, because they’re all about speed, and roughly like this:

Them: CQ CWT <their call>

You:  <my call>

Them: <my call> <their name> <their CWT number>

You:  <my first name> CWA TU

Them: TU <their call> 

The first 20 minutes is super busy as regulars contact other regulars at speeds well-above 25 words per minute (wpm), approaching 35+ wpm. For comparison, here is the same short story at 10 wpm, 20 wpm, 25 wpm, and 30 wpm.

The event would be completely impenetrable if it weren’t for the terse, predictable exchanges and abundant repetition. For example, I can receive in short bursts at about 18 wpm, though sustained text will need to be slower, and with lots of spacing.

I’ve also relied on the repetition. When listening, I’ll look for someone calling “CQ CWT” a couple of times before jumping in. Theoretically, I can jump in after they send “TU <their call>”, but I find it easier to squeeze in when they start calling CQ again.  

Although propagation right is generally poor right now, there are bands that I’ll have better success on depending on the time of day. For example, in the evening session (0300Z), I’ll start with the less busy 20M band, scanning for people camped out on a frequency.  I’ll listen until I can get their basic information down then try a contact. 

Some folks use these abbreviations for their CWA member numbers: N = 9, T = 0.Less commonly, A = 1, E = 5.  For example, if Bob (W1AW) is member 924, he might end with “N24,” or -. ..— ….- rather than —-. ..— ….- Now that I know to look for it, it’s less bewildering.

Another aid is pre-downloading the CW Ops roster from here and pattern matching:

grep -i w1aw cwops.txt

Some of the logging tools like N1MM (free), N3FJP (small fee) and Ham Radio Deluxe (larger fee) can do auto-lookups based on copies of these databases, lists of people who regularly participate in contests, or FAA databases.

A benefit of frequently trying/listening to enough of these is recognizing certain “regular” call signs.  A second benefit is other contests like NAQP, 13 Colonies, or even Field Day that run at 15-20 wpm seems soooo much much easier to approach.

There have been more occasions where I’ll tune in a band on the weekend and hear a lot of activity. This site is super helpful to identify which contest you’re hearing, the expected exchange and any rules. 

Unlike digital modes like FT8, where the logging rate of contacts is usually automatic at a rate upwards of 90%, CW users tend to not log, especially high-volume contesters. I would estimate I’m lucky to get a third of my CW QSOs officially noted in LoTW. I try to log them in real-time to LoTW/QRZ, and also post a summary to 3830 Scores for posterity (also helpful for quick searching)   *

Michigan – Part 2

(Notes to self, Continued from part 1.)

Whitefish Island Indian Reserve, Sault Saint Marie, Ontario

Sault Ste Marie – I’d originally planned to spend a full day in Sault Ste Marie, but that fell apart when I opted to go to Mackinac Island the second time.  Since I had to claim my Ontario geocaching souvenir, I crossed the border to hike on Whitefish Island Indian Reserve and see Soo Locks.

Swing Gate

The swing bridge, above, was one of the finals for a puzzle cache I’d worked out.  It wasn’t a difficult hide inasmuch as there were so many places it could be.  Needless to say, my crawling under and around looking for a magnetic key holder attracted some attention.  I’ve found just explaining what I’m doing is enough to convince people I’m harmless, albeit weird.  Almost always, the interloper is as disappointed in the cache as I am relieved to have found it.

Google Holding Pattern

Having spent a lot of quality time with my phone in navigate mode, I noticed Google Maps’ latest feature, holding patterns.  In aviation, a holding pattern is a time-waster, used for aircraft spacing.  When driving, it serves no useful purpose, unless you really don’t want to get there.

Pickle Barrel Museum

I meandered west until I could segue to Grand Marais, near Lake Superior.  Apparently I stopped at the Pickle Barrel House (closed, unfortunately) for gas, a can of Pringles, and a photo.  This is the easternmost part of the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, one of the bucket items for my trip.

Au Sable Lighthouse

One of the joys of traveling solo was I could do crazy hikes like out-and-back to the Au Sable Lighthouse for no reason other than enjoying a good 2-mile walk in perfect weather.  

The Graveyard Coast

Munising, MI, was my base for the next two nights for the cruise of Pictured Rocks and the Roam Inn, easily the best place I stayed in all trip.  For the first night, they upgraded me to a nice suite with a balcony capable of supporting a random wire antenna.  The hour I spent on-air was enough to finally nab a contact in Rhode Island.  

Tracey’s, the restaurant downstairs was an amazing upgrade to the grocery-store/take-out I’d been having in the previous days.  This was the one place I truly splurged.  

The highlight of the next day was the Spray Falls boat cruise of the water side of Pictured Rocks National Seashore.  The tours are offered various times of the days.  As my visit was super early in the season, I took the 5pm version.   (A few weeks later, an 8pm sunset cruise would be offered – that would be a sweet one to take.)

The tour lasts about 2 hours and heads northeast along the lakeshore.  As the evening cools down, most folks ducked under the shelter, leaving me to enjoy a shivering near-solo view of the spectacular rock formations.  

A trip to this area would be incomplete without a detour to Lakenenland, a junkyard art gallery exhibiting Tom Lakenen’s fine work.  It’s a short loop that you can drive or walk, and totally free, though donations are accepted.  

Heading south, crossing into Wisconsin, is jarring because there are so many billboards.  

Theoretical halfway point = Halfway-ish

I stopped at Lambeau Field to pay homage to the home of the Green Bay Packers. It’s way more accessible than the Seahawks’ stadium.  As tempting as it was to buy a cheese head, I figured I would have no room in my baggage to take it back. (And then, there’d be lots of ‘splainin’ to do among the Seahawk faithful.)

I was originally going to stay in town and drive back and forth to Appleton, but was really unsure of my daughter’s schedule.  In Appleton proper, I stayed at the Franklin Street Inn, bed and breakfast.  The room was spacious, air conditioned (important because I was dying in this weather), and a few blocks from Lawrence University, where my daughter is attending.

Mural by Peter Heid

Had I better control over my time, I would have loved to head northeast into Door County.  Since I didn’t, I stayed relatively close to campus attempting to find the bucket of puzzle caches I’d solved.  (Unfortunately, as most hadn’t been found in several months, it was hard for me to tell if they were missing or I was just lame.)

After a few days visiting, I had to head back to Traverse City to return my rental and fly home.  This time of year, there are not a lot of options:

  • Drive around to the north — about 7 hours.
  • Drive around to the south — about 9 hours, and you get to go through Chicago traffic.  (No thanks!)
  • Ferry across Lake Michigan.  There were two available options, neither whose timing worked out: Manitowoc and Milwaukee.  I had booked the return through Milwaukee, but would have had to leave around 3am to make it in time to sleep four hours on the ferry.  
Spoiler alert: I drove around the north, back through Mackinaw City.

This time of  year — and time of day — there was not a lot of traffic.  I had plenty of time to stop and pick up more geocaches along the way, also a good excuse to stretch and pee and stuff.  

Counties visited

A thousand miles, 230 geocaches, a whitefish hippie bowl, and a bezillion little black flies later, I was back to Traverse City. 

Now arriving Gate 1… Gate 2 … Gate 47…


I’m a pretty huge fan of The Expanse, having read the first three books, listened to the audio books narrated by Jefferson Mays, watched its first three seasons a few times, added Belter easter-eggs to internal company email, and adorning my laptop with MCRN and Remember the Cant stickers.

Remember the Cant!

The TV show is gorgeous in the effects and level of detail in the scenes. Even on my fifth rewatch, I’m still noticing elements in place that will be alluded to later in the season. (For example, the name of the ship picking up refugees from Ganymede is Jefferson Mays, the audiobook narrator.) The characters are all interesting and well-played. Listening to Chrisjen Avasarala (played by Shohreh Aghdashloo) drop insults is very entertaining. Also for season 3, there was a lot of interaction on Twitter from the cast and crew. (My femtosecond of fame: Cas Anvar responded to a comment I made.)

Anyway, I like it.

Rocinante Engine

My spouse has been confused by it, having only seen snippets of episodes, and not in linear order, as I’ve rewatched it a few times. Fortunately, my oldest daughter, the artist, is. One of the primary reasons she wanted to come back from college for the summer was to see season 3. And after the awesome season 3, she was inspired to build me the Rocinante.


Over a period of about three weeks, she wielded her Xacto-knife, folding and artist wizardry to build from aft forward:

Almost done!

The final model is about the length of my arm. May need to shore up its internal structure to hang from the ceiling of the Data Cave, but here it is, in its glory:

Rocinante Final

Rocinante Final

Fourth of July

Yours truly

Part of the vetting for Eastside Firecorps included taking the first set of FEMA‘s Incident Command System (ICS) courses online:

  • ICS 100 – Introduction to Incident Command System
  • ICS 200 – ICS for Single Resources and Initial Action Incidents
  • ICS 700 Introduction to the National Incident Management System
  • ICS 800 National Response Framework

The overarching concept behind these is to put forth an organizational framework for resource management.  As someone who’s been in the software industry, the antithesis of organization, an open mind was needed.  For example, there are forms.  Lots, and lots of forms, that are used to document everything.  And it’s good they do.

I’d taken these in early 2017.  While I did volunteer at the Seattle Marathon last year, I hadn’t actually been involved in an event that employed this idea until the July 4th holiday, when I was part of EFR’s event management for the City of Sammamish Fourth of July celebration.

Before the event, there’s a summary email of general logistics. For example:

The biggest change at this point is that we all need to arrive by 1600 rather than 1700 as previously stated. This will allow us to sign-in, get radios distributed, move equipment, set-up the 1st Aid station canopies and be done prior to our briefing with BC Huffman.

Please review the attached ICS documents, particularly the ICS-204 for a better look at the overall schedule, assignments, etc.
EF&R is providing:

  • 1 Career Engine & Aid Car
  • 1 Volunteer Aid Car (Air Unit Volunteers)
  • 2 First Aid canopies (upper and lower commons) with Jump Kits and PAEDs
  • 1 Gator

The city is planning to provide us with one 4 seat golf cart, tables, chairs, trash bins, ice and water.

We will all be using 800MHz radios (no HAM gear required)

I am still waiting on specific parking info as there is construction on SE 4th that will eliminate the parking we have had in previous years. If you can carpool – even better. Park at Station #82 and drive in as few cars as possible. I will leave that part up to you all.

Dress for Fire Corps volunteers:
Green Polo, black pants, black shoes/boots, cap and pin and of course, your ID badge. It is forecasted to be cool in the evening but hopefully no rain at this point. Bring outer-wear as appropriate for changing conditions.

Crowds streaming in

The ICS 204 contained a gloriously detailed list of assignments, resources, contacts, timeline, and limits of scope.  For example, I was assigned to a team of three (an EMT, a CERT member, and the radio guy), roving around the Sammamish Commons.  It is small part of a much larger document, “Event Action Plan,” the city puts together with each group. (Since these were leftover, I snagged one for my nerdy edification.) Other departments, such as the police, also had packets that outlined complementary functions, including dress code, placement of cones. I am impressed at the level of planning that goes into events like this.

Our role was spelled out as follows:

  • Provide medical support to the extent of your credentialing
    • Log all incidents (including minor issues – band-aids, ice, minor sprains, etc.)
    • Contact Command for any medical situations other than those above to ensure Career crew response, AMB, etc. BC will initiate calls with NORCOM, etc. (see Special Instructions Below)
  • Provide situational awareness, crowd monitoring, etc.
  • Ensure safety during the event and on incidents
  • Request additional resources as needed through Command
  • Engage with the attendees as applicable
  • Assist when requested by Command with Lost Child/Parent situations

Fire Corps EMTs will provide attendee care for minor issues only, including those listed in the previous section. Should a patient require BLS or ALS care; you are to alert Command immediately with a short report and follow the BCs instructions. Maintain patient care until Career BLS crews arrive. The BC will initiate the call, assign resources and transport as necessary. Fire Corps EMT are to resume their assigned tasks as soon as possible

Situational Awareness… and the strangest game of Battleship I’ve ever played.

The initial briefing reinforced the timeline in the ICS204, 4pm – 11:45pm shift. We were then issued equipment (800MHz radios, lanyards with a volunteer badge, clipboards, more forms), met some luminaries, had some opportunity to mingle with the other groups and grab a snack.

With the fireworks not starting until 10pm, we had five hours to wander around the facility as crowds streamed in. The folks working the EOC (Emergency Operations Center) wanted to test equipment, and did some sample radio checkins. It was nice that we had a grid map of the Sammamish Commons to practice our situational awareness. This was my first “real” time using an 800MHz trunked radio. The primary difference is these you press transmit and wait for the beep before speaking. Also the radios are massively heavier than my handheld.

We had the opportunity to chat with one of the pyrotechnics guys and learned they have 12 sequences of 32 groups of fireworks each. They set up everything to detonate over an unpopulated area (though ash and smoke blow around). The fireworks were to begin at 10pm on the dot, with a five minute warning shot, run for ~22 minutes. They were prompt and also well-organized.

Nighttime revelry

An estimated 15,000 people streamed in over the next four hours. What was as amazing was seeing them exit peacefully much quicker. I fielded a few questions like “Is there an ATM?” and “Where is the empanada food truck?” (which, to the amazement of my team, I knew the answer to off the top of my head). Otherwise, we were not involved in any incidence or accidents, an outcome I was totally fine with.

EFC crew Before the event

Setting up FT8

(Updated 2019-12-08)

First, download and install the latest distribution from the WSJT-X project page. The documentation is well-written and useful.

Second, verify your system clock is set accurately. Seriously. The FT8 cycles are 15 seconds, of which 12.6 seconds are transmit, 0.5 – 1 seconds of decode & lookup, and the rest left up to you to make a response. On Mac, this is done via command-line:

sudo ntpdate -u

As David (ac0vh) notes, MacOS 10.14 or newer:

sudo sntp -sS

On Windows, use Dimension 4

Edit the preferences. In the General tab:

FT8 – General Settings

1. Enter your call sign.
2. Enter your Maidenhead grid.
3. This is optional, but if you choose your IARU region, it’ll help set up your frequency list later.
4. I like the program off by default as a reminder to set my system time.
5. There is some automation in place such that when it sends the “73” (“Best regards”), it’ll stop transmitting until you reenable it again.

The Radio tab is going to vary depending on what you own.
For my Elecraft KX3:

1. USB device for the control cable.
2. The computer controls the radio rather than using tones (like my HT does).
3. This tells the radio to use data mode, which disables compression, the RX/TX EQ, and uses a low error-rate ALC.

From the KX3 manual

My Mac lacks a microphone, so I use an external USB dongle for both in and out.  Generally, you want to use as little volume as necessary to avoid overloading the card.

FT8 audio

Generally, I run with ALC (Automatic Level Control) — the ALC gain on the radio -showing 4-5 bars.  Some radios will require this off. Sound out from the radio (and into the sound card) is kept at a minimum.  See below.

The reporting tab has two items of interest:

FT8 – Reporting

1. When you detect a station, upload it to this (free) spotting service  This is a pretty nifty

This is very useful because it lets you see that your station is being received.  The light purple arc is an estimate of where I’m being well-received.

2. There are supplementary utilities that can listen to the connection and automatically log for you. For example, I have JT-Bridge act as a layer to do lookups then instruct MacLoggerDX to upload them to (Yes, this is overly complex.)

Finally, the first time you use wsjtx, or if you update, you’ll need to load in frequencies. Right-click on the main window and select Reset. I skim through these to remove bands my radio doesn’t support (e.g., 2200m, microwave frequencies):

FT8 – Frequencies

Right click and save these just in case you want to start over.

Okay, now that that’s set up, in the main window, there are three areas of interest:

FT8 – Main

Select the “Monitor” button to start listening.  The waterfall should start showing activity if there are users on.  Once a full 15-seconds has elapsed, you should start seeing those signals being decoded.

On the bottom, left is a meter showing input levels.  You want it to be in the green, ideally around 25-30db.  If it’s too quiet, the bar will be red meaning you’re not getting enough signal.  If it’s too loud, the bar will turn yellow indicating oversaturation.

The other two tick boxes are assistive automation.  Auto Seq will progress through the calling sequence on each cycle.  It’s necessary on FT8 because of the rapid cycle times (and my lack of cat-like reflexes).  The Call 1st is used when you’re calling CQ – it will automatically select the first response (either by time or, in the event of a tie, the sub-frequency you’re monitoring followed by the order of sub-frequency).

The standard messages, on the bottom, right, are automatically generated when you respond to someone (by double-clicking on their CQ) or someone responds to you.

So now, here’s how a sequence works.  The top quarter and bottom half of the graphic below are WSJT-X.  Sandwiched in the middle is a third-party listener, JT-Bridge, that does lookups of people and lets me know if they’re in a geographic area of interest.

First, I have the Monitor button (in green) selected, so it’s listening.  On the waterfall graph, outlined by the red rectangle are 15-second bursts of transmissions from NA4M calling CQ.  To response, I double-click on the CQ at 02:05:45.  (With JT-Bridge, I can also click on the one with the little number “3” next to it).

That action does the following things:

a) Pre-loads a set of standard messages (shown below) for the exchange.
b) Enables transmit (the Enable Tx button, currently off, because I’m doing this post-exchange)
c) Populates the Rx Frequency side with what’s happening on my receive frequency.

You’ll see in step (2), I respond, but he doesn’t acknowledge.  He repeats his CQ 30 seconds later.  I respond in step (3).  When he acknowledges me with my signal strength in step (4), the line turns purple to let me know that someone’s talking with me.  At that point, I return back to him with R-09 signal strength.  At step (5) he acknowledges receipt, and then exchange regards.

Buckle up, this goes faster than you’d think…

Fun with FT8

(For setting up FT8, go here.)

Setting up WSPR (Weak Signal Propagation Reporting) was done in preparation for playing with the two-way digital communication modes. The set I was initially aiming for is JT9/JT65, named after Joe Taylor, for very short messages that can be received far away, in noisy conditions.

What makes this work are:

  • Short messages.
  • Long transmission cycles.  For most voice communication, you’re rarely talking more than 15 seconds.  These modes run a full minute.
  • Lower power.  Radios aren’t intended to be on all the time.  (Same concept for my minivan: it could go 100mph, but running it all the time is probably not a good idea for multiple reasons.)  High power * sustained time = more heating.
  • Accurate clock.   Starting right on the minute makes it easier to decode and be decoded.  Most modern computers make use of a time servers, though as I learned, this may be antithetical to power-savings.  Apple, for example, lets the clock drift a few seconds here and there.  For most purposes, that’s okay, but in these digital modes, it’s waaaaaay too much.  I’ve found that I need to update the official time when I power on, and then again about once every hour or two.  For example, this morning, the clock was 1.62 seconds off.  The horror!
  • Accurate frequency.   My radio has a special temperature compensation procedure whereby you pipe in a known, super-accurate frequency and measure how much the radio drifts as the temperature changes.  Once that’s done, the radio will compensate.  I have not done this yet.

There’s a newer digital mode called FT8 (Frankie-Taylor) that trades some of the sensitivity for much shorter cycle time of 15 seconds. Since it is still in beta preview, I figured folks would have much higher patience for a complete n00b learning to use his radio at the same time.

What is the Matrix?

Typically, I’ll listen to an area on the spectrum until someone requests a contact (or I can make requests myself if there are gaps).  The photo above is the spectrum on the 40M band (7.074MHz) last night. Each column represents an 50Hz slice of someone talking.   Brighter/redder patterns are a stronger signals.

Horizontal lines are slices of 15 seconds.  The gap between 02:56:45 and 02:57:15 was my transmitting in response to a request from Anthony, in Indiana. (I’ve never been able to get through to him, though.)

A successful sequence may look like this:

Sample of a short contact

Translated, it works out to mean:

CQ WA0RVK EM36 This is Philip from south of Springfield Missouri.
Is anyone there?
WA0RVK WT8P CN87 Philip, I’m Jim and I’m east of Bellevue Washington
WT8P WA0RVK -16 Jim, this is Philip, you’re signal to noise ratio is -16*
WA0RVK WT8P R-02 Philip, this is Jim, your signal to noise ratio is -02.
WT8P WA0RVK RRR Jim, this is Philip, acknowledged.
WA0RVK WT8P 73 Have a great day, Philip.  — Jim
WT8P WA0VRK 73 You too, Jim.  — Philip

And that’s it.  The elapsed time was about a minute and a half (compared to six minutes with JT9/65).   *My signal to noise ratio, -16dbm, is pretty faint, on par with a wifi network, but it’s not bad for 2600 kilometers away.  When we were having our exchange, our clocks were off by about 0.4 to 0.9 seconds, which happened to work out this time.

Remember what I said about the clocks? In this exchange, our clocks differed between 0.4 and 0.9 seconds. The transmit cycle is 15 seconds, which is 12.6 seconds of actual transmitting, about a second to decode the pattern into a 13-character message (72 bits!), do an internet lookup of the person, display the results; and 1.4 seconds for me to respond.

Initiating these contacts is very much manual and, as much as this activity could be, a small adrenaline rush of “Did I click in time? Will I be able to reach this person with my tiny radio? Will they respond?”

If the clocks are off 0.9 seconds, then there would normally be scant time to respond. Moreover, doing this six times a row is hard. The WSJTX software includes some automation to send standardized messages once we’ve established communication. Thus, starting at the end of the third message, when he responds back to me with a signal report, the computer will handle the remaining messages. If I don’t receive an acknowledgement — someone’s already beat me to it, he’s given up, or he’s trying again — my computer will repeat.

Over the last two weeks, I’ve exchanged contacts with several states, Canada, Brazil and Venezuela (who happened to also be my first contact!).

Only thing missing: a brewski or coffeeski.

WSPR – Weak Signal Propagation Reporter

Since earning my amateur radio license nearly two years ago, I have operated on VHF and UHF a modest amount, mostly participating in weekly Radio ‘Nets, CERT (aka “passing out brochures for emergency planning”), a day of Cascadia Rising and some experiments with packet radio.

With the approaching of ARRL’s Field Day, aka “It’s officially not a numbers contest, but it totally is*” I was interested in trying to get my HF radio set up so I could listen in.  I’d also signed up for a late-night slot with the Radio Club of Redmond to give it a whirl.


Yay, I found every cache in Bellevue!

*For the hams who think I’m being harsh in my description of Field Day, Geocaching has the same concepts.  Cache Machines run quarterly, offering hordes an organized itinerary to find ~100 caches in a day; challenge caches are different levels of repetitive stress injury :), power trails spam lonely roads but can bolster caching stats; and there are also those who solve a few thousand geocaching puzzles they probably won’t ever go out and find.

And so does cycling.   Seattle to Portland is totally a not a race race, replete with pacelines, semi-professional training options and a timing chip.

I get it.  It’s one way people enjoy their game.

Anyway… my initial challenge was how to string up a long-enough antenna.  Most hams do this by building an antenna gun, which is typically an apparatus made from PVC pipe that pneumatically shoots tennis balls (with strings attached).   I was nervous about the percussion calling undue attention to this and reasoned arborists must have to do this sort of thing all the time, so maybe there was a special tool to help out.

Thank you, Internet.  With a throw weight and my fine “I analyze data for a living” physique, I was able to toss one up to about 25′ up with a string, but without any semblance of accuracy.  The little portable wrist sling shots were very chintzy looking, certainly not going to toss a 400-gram weight up further than I can barely throw it.  Enter the industrial sling shot:

Industrial sling shot

It took me several tries to get the process down: place the weight in the basket, remember to spool out string (rather than entangling around my legs), pull pretty hard and steady, while aiming at the same time.  Also: do not try to pull antenna wire directly, dumbass, use twine only.  By the seventh shot, I had hurled a throw weight into a beautiful arc around a branch about 75-80 feet up.  I replaced the neon-line (good for placing, not good for staying there without raising questions) with black paracord.    Oh boy, was this going to be awesome…

… except I could not hear anything on my radio.  Granted, I’ve never really used it before, but FFS, surely I can tune it.  I borrowed a software-defined radio to look at the spectrum.  Wire fine, re-read manuals galore.  Finally, I popped open the pre-built balun and found the problem:

Well, *there’s* your problem.

This box is a 9:1 balun, which is simply something “you connect an antenna to.”  Signal wasn’t coming in because … the connection to the antenna hadn’t been soldered.  While it was countless hours of wasted time looking at other solutions, it was at least a problem I could solve!

So Field Day passed, but I still celebrated my July 4th by getting WSPR (weak signal propagation reporter) working. WSPR nodes are low-powered transmissions followed by listening (typically 1:4 ratio) to gauge radio propagation.  Results are sent to a central web site like WSPRNet or PSKReporter.  When propagation is really good, amateur radio people are known to drop what they’re doing and run to the shack to work the radio for real.

This is not entirely like geocachers with a potential first to find.

By the end of the week, I had hit five continents from my cookie-cutter subdivision, using only 2 watts of power (albeit, for one-minute polling intervals):

Holy cow, I reached five continents!


My setup:

  • Elecraft KX3 transceiver
  • Macbook
  • WSJTx software
  • USB sound card (this)
  • End-fed antenna – 54′ wire, launched into a tree, counterpoise




<tl;dr>It wasn’t that bad.</tl;dr>

(These are notes are mostly for myself for next time.)

T – 10+ days: Pick up The Kit.  The kit is a 4L container with GoLytley powder, a flavor packet, and a prescription  ondansetron, an anti-nausea drug that I would cherish later. Out of pocket costs for this: $2.31.  A nurse called to check that I’d done this, reviewed the information packet, and had arranged for someone to take me home on the day of the event.  She proceeded to ask me a bunch of odd questions about pacemakers and other stuff that didn’t apply, then asked if I had any questions.  I could hear a sigh when I responded in the affirmative…

T – 5 days: Last Fiber for a while.  I loaded up on the Mega Super Branny Nuggets with Extra Nuts, Grains and Seeds for breakfast.  Lunch was a melange of cherries, blueberries and strawberries.  Dinner dim sum with garlic steamed green beans for dinner.

T – 4 days: Low fiber diet.  Although there was a short list of allowed and unallowed foods, I found it more helpful to find some menus online and pick out stuff that I thought would be okay enough.  Being told do not eat fiber or red/blue foods made me crave them more.

  • B: Rice Crispix (“0 fiber!”), milk and a banana.
  • L: Rice Crispix, milk and a banana.   Two meals in a row was a Bad Idea, as I’d bonk later with my body in full WTF mode.
  • D: Cheddar bacon cheeseburger with fries.  I can do this!
  • Shot of Miralax.

T – 3 days: 

  • B: Rice Crispix, milk and a banana.  While zoning out, re-reading the guidelines for the 47th time, I noticed bananas were on the “do not eat” list, which contradicted the menu I found from another hospital.  (N.B. they have small seeds.)
  • L: Tuna and cheddar on white sourdough toast.
  • D: Eggs, bacon and cheddar on white sourdough toast.
  • Shot of Miralax.

T – 2 days: drink a lot of water throughout the day.

  • B: Rice Crispix with a can of peaches.
  • L: Cheddar slices and a can of pears.
  • D: Skipped, as I was feeling bloated.
  • Shot of Miralax.

T – 1 days: Clear liquid diet.  The guidelines said I could have a low-fiber breakfast, but I was still bloated from the night before.  I skipped it and kept drinking lots of water and tea.

  • 10:00am (ish) – mix Golytley with a gallon of warm water.  Do not use the flavor packet. Shake until it’s totally dissolved and put it in the fridge to chill.
  • 10:00am – Clear liquids from here on out.  Tea with sugar is fine, coffee with milk, no.  Since there’s a risk of getting dehydrated later, drink plenty of fluids.
  • 16:30 – Begin consuming The Potion.  I found it helpful to fill a bicycle water bottle (~22oz) and add a packet of Crystal Light sugar-free lemonade, serving it with crushed ice (super cold) and a straw.  I was apparently expecting supremely awful, but it wasn’t that bad.  Consuming that much cold fluid made me cold.
  • 17:00 By the first bottle, I was feeling nauseous, a possibility they had warned me about.  I took one of the ondansetron tablets, watched an episode of The Expanse, then resumed the regimen.  Half a water bottle later, more nausea and the second ondansetron was popped.  Watched another episode, and resumed.
  • 19:00 – 3L consumed.  So much for this starting to work within an hour…
  • 20:15 – Thar she blows!  I was glad I had a stack of magazines handy.
  • 22:30 – Nappy time.

Day 0:

  • 04:15 – Drink another 1L.  Since it took ~3 hours to work its magic, I wanted to get a head start on the last bit.  I sucked this down moderately quickly.
  • 07:30 – Thar she blows ][. 
  • 09:30 – Arrive for my appointment.  They had three of us in adjacent areas, asking the preliminary questions, taking vitals, and getting me suited up.  Apparently someone else had not adhered to the diet, and was invited back for a second day. Everything was running late.  I would have been totally fine taking a nap at this point, but with other patients in adjacent areas being prepped, I only had ten-minute low-fiber naplets.
  • 10:30 – Counted 9,738 dimples in the ceiling tiles.  Nurse set up an IV with fluids. She periodically popped in to answer my random questions and indulged me in a discussion of the sedatives provided (fentanyl and midazolam).  There is a range of comfortable from “aware” to “unaware.”  I opted for unaware.
  • 11:30 – Terms and Conditions. The doctor introduced himself and went through his standard spiel on the efficacy (90-95% thorough, which is pretty amazing considering there are a lot of twists and turns), risks, and warning about not driving or entering into any legally binding contracts for the rest of the day.  Having voraciously consumed reputable web sites’ information, I had no questions and was wheeled into Bay 1.  When applying the finger monitor, the nurse thought my hands were too cold and got me a few more blankets (which was super kind).  Fentanyl started and …
  • 12:45 – I woke up to a presentation of snack crackers and cranberry juice.  Yes, please!   As soon as I could walk, they let me go home (not driving, obviously) with a very useful information packet summarizing the visit with photos taken at major sites along the defecation superhighway shown above.

They removed a single, small pedunculated tubular adenoma that was benign.  However, I am supposed to return in five years for another.

MSRP was about $4300, insurance price $1600, all of it covered as preventive care.  It’s unclear how much of the return visit will be covered under the same, but I have some time to plan.

Mid-Atlantic Countryside

Well that was an enjoyable week!   88 geocaches in 6 states (DC, DE, MD, NJ, PA, WV) with 375 miles of biking (and some Ubering) over 9 days.  Highlights were the guided tours of Gettysburg, PA (by a professional guide) and Washington, DC monuments (local, at night).

Pre-trip: This was about as bad shape as I could be in for the ride.  In June, shortly after signing up for the ride, I sprained my ankle on a hike.   Then in August, I caught some sweet bronchitis for 4 weeks: I was in not-so-great shape for the ride.

Day -1: Fly to Philadelphia.  A 6-hour non-stop + 3 hour time zone change + meeting two fellow riders at the airport to share a shuttle (that I ended up having to book) consumed the day.  The hostel was pretty far from public transportation or places to eat, but we found one that would deliver a tasty, greasy Philly cheesesteak:

Philly cheesesteak with pepperoni, onions, and provolone

Day 0: Get my bike, ride around in Philadelphia.

The stories of aggressive Sports Fans and a recent viewing of Twelve Monkeys made me super leery about spending a lot of time in Philadelphia proper but, convinced by a fellow rider from Canada who wanted to explore, we biked from the hostel into downtown.

Ben Franklin is popular.

Ben Franklin statue, #947 of 1,433.

There are lots of row houses, something I vaguely remember from early childhood.  They must be pretty small, because people sometimes leave their pets outside.

Kitty wants to come back inside


Bridge over canal

Day 1: French Creek State Park: Rain.  Valley Forge

I didn’t sleep well due to the First Day Of Tour jitters.  Also, the cheesesteak didn’t agree with me.  (Note to self: you are no longer 19.)  I was rearranging stuff for a while before going with the Showers Pass jacket.  I’d need it, as it rained moderately hard for the first thirty miles.

At the hostel

A few miles in, I had achieved wet rider equilibrium: soaked to the bone, but warm as long as I was moving.  I really don’t remember much except stopping to try to help out other riders with various repairs.  At one point, someone’s derailleur crapped out (new bike, too) and I stuck around until one of the ride leaders came.  I felt kind of bad, but it was really wet outside and this was kind of my only vacation.

Valley Forge National Park

While stopping at the restroom at Valley Forge National Park, I discovered to my glee I could shunt the hot air from the hand dryer into my jacket.  After about twenty minutes of this, I was feeling better and decided to tour around the park, getting virtual geocaches.  I thought I’d be clever and make my own route back onto course before coming to a bride that was out of service for the indefinite future.  Denied, I trekked back.  The rain stopped, but it was pretty gusty.

1871 Bridge

An hour later, the sun was starting to peek out.  I actually had to apply sunscreen, which was kind of nice.  

About this point in the day, I started having a lot of shifting problems due to a stiff link.  Each third pedal would skip gears.  Really annoying, too.  I plugged forward, albeit slowly.  One of the last riders caught up and, with his map wet, wanted help with directions, but didn’t want to ride at my extra super slow speed.  Cat and mouse ensued.

In camp, I got some help finagling the link free so the bike was ridable.  Two other folks with $6000 Co-Motion bikes were having minor issues and the guy with the derailleur was going to look for bike shop options.  The ride leaders told us that Pennsylvania bike shops are generally closed on Mondays, so we would probably be SOL, but we could try Hanover.

I had good cell coverage (and a backup power supply) and found a shop in Intercourse (snicker) Pennsylvania, located near Blue Ball (snicker), that purported to be open on Mondays.

Day 2: Get a replacement chain.  Buy groceries.

Rolling hills

This was a pretty area with rolling hills and, of course, Amish minding their own business.  As fascinated as I was, I respected that as best I could.  The cows, however…

What are you looking at, spandex-English?

I did find this gentleman rather majestic on his horse-drawn plow.


Intercourse Cycles was pretty awesome in getting me in and doing the spot repair (replacement chain; and while we’re at it, let’s put new pads on the front).  While they worked, I went next door for espresso.  Yes, even in small towns, you have multiple caffeinated options!

Back on the road, and with a decent amount of time before I had to head back to camp, I enjoyed the rolling hills of Amish country.  I came upon a buggy and, not really knowing the etiquette, waited until it was safe to pass with a wide berth.

Must… outbike…buggy

A mile later, I was dragging on an uphill and heard him clop-clop-clopping behind me, providing me some motivation to keep pedaling until I hit the flat roads again.

Day 3: Get to camp waaaaaay early.  Buy food.  Cook for 15.

Codurus State Park

One facet of these tours that I’m not super crazy about was the shared cooking.  In it, you and someone else are obliged to buy food (with shared funds) then cook a meal for 15 (13 riders + 2 ride leaders), clean and then have some kind of dessert.   I drew the longest day (in miles) of the tour, also somewhat tardy by my wanting to indulge in the Utz potato chip factory tour:

Utz potato chip factory

Very disappointingly, Snyder’s of Hanover, makers of awesome sourdough hard pretzels, does not appear to have a tour for hungry, pretzel-loving cyclists.

Bridge – photo by Phyllis Zitzer

And finally, I made it to the grocery store where we bought three meals’ worth of food for fifteen people.  Two carts, just under $400 worth because we over estimated the pasta consumption:

Groceries for 15: 3 meals, snacks.

We got into camp and found the van with all the cooking equipment hadn’t arrived yet.  (!!)  So we got started on dinner late through no fault of our own.   We made garlic bread (with real garlic & butter), spaghetti with meatballs, and a spinach salad with roadside heirloom tomatoes.  In retrospect, we overcooked.  I had intended for the garlic bread and salad to be consumed while we cooked the other stuff, but people didn’t quite follow and the garlic bread got cold.  (But, oh my, was it good.)

I ate, then slept, well.

Pasta for 15… and I really need to sleep now.

Day 4: Camp Misty Mount.

On these tours, I’m usually pretty excited to eat and get out on the road as soon as I can to enjoy my day at a snail’s pace.  However, the obligation of cooking requires one to unpack, set up, make coffee, cook breakfast, put out lunch stuff, wait for people to finish, clean, box up.  Fortunately, I had gone with Snacks I Like — candied ginger, mango, various nuts and salty pretzels — and had a relatively short ride.

I rewarded myself with picking up a bunch of puzzle caches I pre-solved.

This was a nice facility, apparently a Christian social camp during other times.  Although we camped in the field, they were nice enough to leave all of the dorms and common areas unlocked.  I got to do laundry, charge all of my devices, have a long, hot shower.  One of the other campers slept inside the common area to avoid the cold.

Day 5 & 6: Gettysburg.

Gettysburg and the Civil War were events that I was super oblivious to (thank you, Texas schooling) until I stopped on a business trip in 2008.  The magnitude is overwhelming.  I was looking forward to coming back and spending more time, up close.


The tour included the interpretive film narrated by Morgan Freeman, whose marvelous voice would be fine for even reading cereal boxes.  The organizers made the next day short to accommodate an optional (yeah, right, as if I’m going to not do it) guided bike tour of monuments.

Gettysburg – John Warren, surveyor.

The tour concluded around lunch time, but could have easily been two days.  The guide was awesome and I have a better appreciation of the significance of Gettysburg and the sheer carnage (something I’d see even more of in Antietam).

Louisiana Memorial

Because this was in Union territory, most of the Confederate monuments were erected relatively recently.  Above is Louisiana’s.

Onto Maryland!

MD border

The ride to camp had significant elevation gain.  We had been repeatedly warned that Camp David was near the top of the hill and, under no circumstances, should we stop here and take photos.  Camp David, formerly Shangri La, is a retreat used by presidents.  It is, as they say, a poorly kept secret.  There are no signs beyond a couple of discreet “no stopping” and “no photography” icons.   The larger sign simply says this particular campground is closed.  More than one person knew someone who knew someone who didn’t adhere to the guidelines and found themselves enjoying some quality time with the US Secret Service.

Tonight, we had the luxury of cabins.

Day 7:Slave Auction Block, Harper’s Ferry, Brunswick, MD

Leaving camp required us to go right back up the hill, past Camp David, before plunging down.  My Canadian counterpart thought it would be amusing to take my photo while struggling up the hill… as he was right in front of Camp David.   As I crested it, I saw a van full of burly men, buzzed haircuts, zooming up.  Kind of feared the worst, but was too chickenshit to stick around and watch it unfold.

I’d later find out that the van’s occupants were late for work and waved at my friend before going past the gate.  My friend, wisely, chose not to press his good luck further.

Unencumbered by needing to buy food or cook, I enjoyed the slower pace to geocache.  (Hint: under the sign)

Crystal Grotto

There was a nice cluster of puzzles in Antietam explaining how much the undulating terrain played into completely unnecessary carnage of the battle.

Antietam Station, near Sharpsburg, MD

The most unexpected thing I saw was in Sharpsburg (a geocaching called my attention to it), was this:

From 1800 to 1865, this stone was used as a slave auction block.  It’s remained here for 150+ years as a sobering reminder.  Wow.

Our route then joined the Chesapeake + Ohio (C+O) towpath.  On the way to Brunswick, I crossed the bridge into Harpers Ferry for some more geocaches and to revisit the town on foot.

Harpers Ferry

There is an interesting viewpoint where you can see the confluence of the Shenandoah River joins up with the Potomac River which continues south past Washington DC into the Chesapeake Bay.

Harpers Ferry

In town, you can see markers showing the flooding over the years.  According to the earthcache, 1996 saw two floods of 29′ or more.

C+O Trail

Day 7: DC or Bust.

C+O Canal

The C+O towpath looks like this for a long time.  The canals (left) have gone unused, leaving stagnant water and algae pools.  It’s dirt and generally fine on slightly-deflated 28C tires.  (However, I would have preferred wider, especially later.)


Every few miles, the path opens up to a picnic area or local access.  There are a series of towpath houses for the former operators of said towpath (when it was a thing).  They have been preserved and are, apparently, rentable for overnight stays.

Canal house

Continuing south, closer to Great Falls, MD, the locks are also in better shape, though not typically used for the original purpose.  The park also gets very crowded and extremely difficult to ride on.

Functional Lock

Inside Great Falls Park:

Great Falls Park, MD

The most jarring experience was emerging from the C+O Towpath onto random Washington, DC, streets.  The directions were hard to follow and I was soon relying on Garmin auto-route to get to the Washington Monument.

Washington Memorial: does it show?

I was glad to get to the Hostel when I did because a presidential motorcade had occurred an hour later, severely delaying the rest of the group.  Meanwhile, I enjoyed a good hosing off and pizza.

One of the local ride leaders offered to give us a nighttime tour of the Washington, DC monuments, something I could not pass up.  This was the closest I’ve ever been to President Obama!   There were some locals who apparently set up a kiosk on the street and extol their unique interpretation of Biblical Apocalypse.

Among the highlights were the Korean War Monument, with its subdued lighting.  The facial expressions communicate a lot:

Korean War Memorial

The size of the Vietnam Memorial was stunning.  The names are ordered by year of death.  The full moon reflecting on the bricks added a somber note.

Vietnam Memorial

What trip to DC would be complete without visiting Giant Abe?


Last stop before heading back to the Hostel was the Capitol Building.  We had unencumbered access to bike around it.

Capitol Building

Day 9: All good things…

The trip description originally suggested we’d be taking Amtrack back to DC, but nope, pile into the van, bikes on top, and drive.   I think we were all pretty tired from being up so late, but the tour was totally worth it.

Van back to Philadelphia

I hung out in Philadelphia airport watching the Washington – Philadelphia game in a sports bar with a local fan who seemed like an okay guy.

If you give a Mouse a cookie (Electrolux style)

If you give a mouse a cookie, they’ll get crumbs and chocolate all over their clothes. When they get crumbs and chocolate all over their clothes, the laundry piles up.  When the laundry piles up, you will need to use the Electrolux front-loading washing machine.

When you do several years-worth of laundry in the Electrolux front-loading washing machine, you’ll eventually discover it was leaking all over the floor.    And you’ll call a repair person.  And then another.  And another.  And another.  And another.  And another.  Four will tell you Electrolux front-loading washing machines are “bad news” and decline to fix them.  The fifth will tell you he’s on injury leave (we wish him a speedy recovery), and the sixth will say he will fix it, but the earliest appointment is in two weeks.

When the sixth repair person tells you it’s going to take two weeks, you accept the appointment.  The next day, as clothes pile up from mice eating cookies, you realize schlepping twelve loads of laundry a week to the run-down Issaquah laundromat is Non-Optimal, and you research.

When you research, you discover a metric crap-ton of search engine optimization going on to dozens of links that ultimately look like the same company trying to sell a repair manual for $20.  When not deploying a middle finger at the attempt, you keep on researching until you find an exploded parts diagram to give you the idea of the complexity.

With an idea of the complexity, you saunter over to for a no-bullshit video and diagnostic tool.  When you iterate through their top four things to check:

  • Water connections
  • Wastewater connection
  • Bellows — this is the rubbery gasket thingie that sits between the door and the spinning drum.  It was not leaking but, after seven years, it was really nasty and was on the “to replace anyway” list.
  • Wastewater pump — this is on the bottom, front, right of the washer and seemed very plausible.

New washer bellows

You realize that your Electrolux front-loading washer is a complex machine that, unlike every other appliance owned, was designed to be serviced by human beings.   A single Phillips screwdriver and a copy of Cryptonomicon (to prop up the front of the washer) were all I needed to get this far:

Okay, now what?

When you get this far, you realize the top four options on RepairClinic were wrong.  The live drip from above is your clue: the cold water valve was leaking from the solenoid on the water valve.

When the cold water valve continues leaking from the solenoid on the water valve, you order that part from RepairClinic and a bellows (out of stock at RC) from Amazon, both delivered via two-day air.  You also know the water faucet shutoffs aren’t working.  Nor is the whole-house cutoff that you really should have gotten fixed in 2002.

While you ponder this, you look for a plumber in a hurry.  When you are in a hurry, you get a guy young enough to be your son, and equally as experienced.  He will charge $250 for the two faucets plus $500 for the main house so this doesn’t happen again.  When he attempts each repair, he needs to take a trip to Home Depot for parts.  When he makes the trip to Home Depot, you begin to rue hiring this person.

The next day, laundry piled higher, you can remove the old parts, and see the corrosion on the blue and yellow thingie where water was leaking at the valves for who knows how long.  And when you do, you will admire the buckling of the hardwood floors refinished in 2010.

Water Pump

After catching up on a week’s worth of laundry, you will realize that summer has passed and it is time to put the house fans in the crawlspace for the season.  When you’re in the crawlspace, with your spider friends, you are curious and wander back to this:

Water pressure regulator. Reduces the higher pressure in to a 25 – 75psi range.

When you see this, you wonder “What the hell is that thing” and do more research, because whatever the hell it is (water pressure regulator, likely the original unit installed when the house was built 30 years ago) is leaking.  Having well-adjusted household water pressure is a good thing, because you want adequate flow, without tearing the valves apart.

When you have a bad experience with a plumber, your first reaction is to try the next job yourself.  However, when you think of all the times you’ve done plumbing, you get sad.  When you get sad, you ask around for a recommendation for a professional.  A professional plumber will have a backlog, but in the meantime, you can answer some Plumbing Questions like “How big is the line?”  When you will make another visit to the crawlspace, much to the delight of your spider friends, and measure the pipe (1″):

Measuring the pipe

You’ll notice how quiet it is this part of the evening.  Except for a disturbingly audible “drip drip drip” on the plastic vapor barrier.  When you hear an audible “drip drip drip” on the plastic vapor barrier, you become sad again because you need another plumber.  However, while you’re down there anyway, you’ll want to look for what’s actually leaking, just in case it’s something that your skills can make less worse.

When you look for what’s actually leaking, you’ll notice you’re directly downstairs from the whole house cutoff replaced the prior week.  When you go back upstairs, you decide to inspect the work a little closer.   When you inspect the work a little closer, you notice something wrong:

Main water cutoff: What’s wrong with this picture?

When you pick your jaw up off the floor, you’ll say “holy crap, I’m not a plumber, but is that putty?  Being used as a pipe patch?”   The prize, a soggy piece of drywall, is slightly more adhesive than plumber’s putty, which is normally used in sink drains because it’s pliable, water tight but completely lacking adhesive properties necessary for a 50 psi line. 

When all between an active leak is a sad piece of plumber’s putty, you shut the water off, causing a ripple effect in the time-space continuum that manifests itself as every female member of the household having the urge to go to the bathroom right now.  There may be yelling.  When there’s yelling, it’s hard to explain to the plumber’s company’s answering service that their employee did a non-optimal job, please come fix this now.

When junior plumber comes back and spends three hours, he will  produce this:

Take two.

This new, left-handed valve, though substantially less leaky than the previous attempt, still has a minute leak.  But the situation is under control (for now).  With a very moist wall, a trip to Home Depot for a humidifier is in order.

When you run a dehumidifier, it pulls water out of the local surrounding.  When run in a bathroom, that is most likely the toilet.  To prevent this, apply some plastic wrap in a way that feels like some college prank.

Bad news comes in threes.  While spending the last sunny Saturday of (possibly) the year, I tented off an area with plastic to set up the dehumidifier and emptied the tank three times a day, much to the delight of my spider friends.  In anticipation of plumber #2’s visit, I removed the tent and discover a slow drip in the sewer (!) line heading out of the house.  Fuuuuuuuuuuuck.

Leak #1 on the poop superhighway.

When plumber #2 showed up to replace the pressure regulator, I asked him about the sewer and the whole house valve.  (No. Way. In. Hell. I’m calling back the original guy.)   The sewer is going to require another visit: all those junctions on the poo superhighway mean the whole thing needs to be cut out and plumber-healed.  He can’t do it today, because there are custom parts he doesn’t carry with him, but suggested I schedule it with his wife and he’ll make the list.  “Do you have a bucket?”

Leak #2: from the kitchen sink/dishwasher

The first night, the bucket had a gallon of aromatic water in it.  Emptying this much was going to be far more awful, so I researched options to temporarily minimize the leakage.   Collars (neoprene sleeves with radiator clamps), caulk, and various tapes come up as options.  Ducdt tape seemed viable, until I actually started doing it and realized how bad it is around gaps.  Electrical tape, however, worked really well.  The drip was effectively stopped.

Professional plumber came back ten days later and, in less than an hour, had all of the sewer stuff taken care of.  He spent a little longer (an hour and a quarter) removing and replacing the whole house cutoff again.

Cutoff #3

Total time: 2 1/4 hours at $200/hour plus another $120 in parts.  Totally worth it to have it done correctly.